PainRelief.com Interview with: Ana M Valdes MA PhD Professor in Molecular and Genetic Epidemiology NIHR Nottingham Biomedical Research Centre – Research Area Lead Associate Editor European Journal of Clinical Nutrition School of Medicine University of Nottingham
PainRelief.com: What is the background for this study?
Response: Knee osteoarthritis and knee pain affect a large proportion of middle age and aging individuals and this are an increasing problem. Physical exercises aimed at strengthening and stabilising the muscles in the legs and hips are known to be highly effective in reducing pain and improving the ability to walk and get on with life. But a key challenge is how to deliver such gradual exercises in a way that does not require people to travel to see a physiotherapist or a doctor, particularly given the issues raised by lockdown both in terms of the Covid-secure challenges face to face visits and also given the strain that the pandemic has put on health services.
Our study was the first randomised controlled trial in the UK where we were had people with painful knee osteoarthritis either do only what their doctors normally recommend or, in addition, follow a programme of exercised developed in Sweden delivered via smartphone app. The research participants were assessed for knee inflammation, knee pain, pain sensitivity around the knee, muscle strength, and ability to walk and get up from a chair both before and after the 6 week smartphone delivered intervention (or a 6 week period simply following any advice they had from their family doctor).
PainRelief.com Interview with: Laurent Malisoux, PhD Group Leader, Public Health Research Department of Population Health Luxembourg Institute of Health
PainRelief.com: What is the background for this study?
Response: Pronation refers to the way the foot rolls inward during the gait cycle. Foot pronation during running is normal, but over-pronation (increased amount or poor timing) has previously been related to the risk of running-related injury. Indeed, alterations in the movements at the foot-ankle complex results in abnormal repetitive load, and may subsequently lead to an injury at the foot-ankle complex or more proximally in the kinetic chain. A previous trial demonstrated that motion control shoes reduced the risk of injury in recreational runners.1
Importantly, in the previous trial, the effect of motion control shoe was investigated on all injury types concurrently. However, risk factors as well as mechanisms underlying the development of injury might differ across injury types. Thus, motion control shoes may only be effective in preventing some injury types, and the effect might be partially masked if it is assessed on different injury types concurrently.
The present study is a secondary analysis of the abovementioned trial. Based on previous literature, we assumed that some injury types, namely Achilles tendinopathy, plantar fasciopathy, exercise-related lower leg pain and anterior knee pain, were related to over-pronation and were defined as pronation-related running injuries, while other running-related injuries are not. We hypothesised that motion control shoes aiming at reducing excessive pronation would reduce the risk of pronation-related running injuries in recreational runners compared to shoes with no motion control technology.
PainRelief.com Interview with: George A. Kelley, DA, FACSM Professor & Director, Meta-Analytic Research Group 2019 WVU SPH Excellence in Graduate Teaching Recipient School of Public Health Department of Biostatistics West Virginia University Morgantown, WV
PainRelief.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?
Response: Given that arthritis effects 54.4 million US adults and more than 23 million have arthritis-attributable activity limitations and another 14.6 million report severe joint pain, we estimated the number of physically inactive US adults with arthritis who could improve their physical function and pain by exercising. Using data from our previously published meta-analytic study as well as published data from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and US Census Bureau, we found that overall, more than 4 million adults could improve their physical function and more than 2 million could improve their pain control by starting and maintaining a regular program of exercise, for example, walking briskly for 150 minutes per week, i.e., 5 days per week, 30 minutes per session. Current recommendations regarding physical activity and exercise in adults with arthritis can be found on the CDC Arthritis Program homepage: https://www.cdc.gov/arthritis/index.htm
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