Gene Responsible for Sensing Mechanical Pain Identified

PainRelief.com Interview with:
Reza Sharif Naeini, Ph.D.
Associate Professor
Department of Physiology & Cell Information Systems Group
McGill University
Life Sciences Complex (Bellini),
Montréal, Québec

PainRelief.com:  What is the background for this study?

Response: My lab is interested in understanding how our bodies detect signals from the environment, like our sense of touch and pain. This process is done by specialized sensors we have that detect mechanical stimuli, ranging from a hair deflecting under the wind, a gentle stroke, or a pinch. These sensors are called mechanosensitive ion channels and they convert mechanical forces into electrical signals that our nervous system can understand.

Their existence was first proposed in 1950 (to my knowledge) by Bernard Katz, and in 1999, researchers at the University of California in San Francisco, led by Dr. Jon Levine, demonstrated that pain-sensing neurons (termed nociceptors) express these channels. But their molecular identity remained elusive.

In 2010, the group of Dr. Ardem Patapoutian discovered the genes Piezo1 and Piezo2, with the latter being essential for our sense of touch and proprioception. While these findings were transformative to the field of somatosensation, mice lacking these genes were still able to respond to painful mechanical stimuli.

Continue reading

Nebulized Ketamine May Offer Pain Relief to Emergency Room Patients

PainRelief.com Interview with:

Jefferson Drapkin BS
Research Associate
Maimonides Medical Center
Department of Emergency Medicine
Brooklyn, New York

PainRelief.com:  What is the background for this study?  What are the main findings?

Response: Nebulized administration of ketamine has been studied in the areas of palliative care, therapy for asthma, and acute postoperative management of sore throat. To our knowledge, there is no literature regarding analgesic efficacy and safety of nebulized ketamine’s role in managing acute painful conditions in the emergency department (ED).

As all five patients had a decrease in pain from baseline to 120 min, this case series demonstrates that the inhalation route of ketamine delivery via breath-actuated nebulizer may have utility for managing pain in the ED.

Safety And Efficacy Of The Unique Opioid Buprenorphine For Chronic Pain Relief

PainRelief.com Interview with:
Joseph V. Pergolizzi, Jr., M.D.

Co-Founder and Chief Operating OfficerNEMA Research Inc.

Joseph V. Pergolizzi, Jr., M.D.
 Co-Founder and Chief Operating OfficerNEMA Research Inc.

PainRelief.com:  What is the background for this study?  What are the main findings?

Response: Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a leading cause of disability.

  • Acetaminophen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are first-line analgesic options or mild CLBP; however, when certain patients with moderate to severe CLBP do not achieve adequate pain relief, opioids are considered as an add-on therapy. Unfortunately, most opioid analgesics have the potential for adverse effects, abuse, and diversion.
  • Buprenorphine buccal film (Belbuca®) is an opioid analgesic classified as a Schedule III controlled substance in the United States and is a partial μ-opioid receptor agonist.
  • Buprenorphine buccal film is a unique analgesic that is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in patients with chronic pain severe enough to require daily, around-the-clock, long-term opioid treatment for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate.
  • Two pivotal phase 3 clinical trials (Study 307, Clinical Trial ID NCT01675167, and Study 308, Clinical Trial ID NCT01633944) established the efficacy and safety profiles of buprenorphine buccal film.
Continue reading

All Over-the-Counter Pain Relief Medications Contain Both Risks and Benefits

PainRelief.com Interview with:

Charles H. Hennekens, M.D., Dr.P.H, FACPM, FACC
Sir Richard Doll Professor and Senior Academic Advisor
Charles E. Schmidt College of Medicine
Florida Atlantic University

PainRelief.com:  What is the background for this study?  What are the main findings?

Response: About 29 million Americans use over-the-counter nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to treat pain. Every year in the United States (US),  NSAID use is attributed to  approximately 100,000 hospitalizations and 17,000 deaths. In addition, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration recently strengthened its warning about risks of non-aspirin NSAIDs on heart attacks and strokes. 

While each over the counter and prescription pain reliever  has benefits and risks, deciding which to use is complicated for healthcare providers and their patients.

Continue reading

Back Pain in Elderly: Most Patients Do Not Receive Physical Therapy

PainRelief.com Interview with:
Dan Ly MD MPP
Staff Physician, VA Boston Healthcare System
Ph.D. Candidate in Health Policy (Economics)
Harvard University

Dan Ly
Ph.D. Candidate in Health Policy (Economics)
Harvard University

PainRelief.com:  What is the background for this study?

Response: New low back pain is a common complaint in primary care clinics. Prior research examining care patterns up to 2010 and sampling individual visits has found increasing use of opioids and advanced imaging and decreasing use of NSAIDs during this time period.

However, because care is delivered longitudinally, this study examined the care delivered to patients for new low back pain over the course of the year, which allowed me to look at the timing and sequence of care.

Continue reading

Older Adults More Likely to Misuse Opioids for Pain Relief

PainRelief.com Interview with:

Ty S. Schepis, PhD
Department of Psychology
Texas State University
San Marcos, TX

Ty S. Schepis, PhD
 Department of Psychology
 Texas State University
 San Marcos, TX
Dr. Schepis

PainRelief.com:  What is the background for this study?  What are the main findings?

Response: Prescription opioid misuse motives have been studied in adolescents, young adults, and across the population. One study across the population suggested that older adults differed from younger adults, but this was not fully clear.

We wanted to examine motives across age groups and to investigate the correlates of opioid motive groups in older adults (50 and older). We found that motives changed with aging, with increasing endorsement of pain relief motives, particularly pain relief without other motives.

In contrast, more recreational opioid misuse motives (e.g., to experiment, to get high) peaked in adolescents or young adults. Finally, non-pain relief motives in older adults (50 and older) were associated with higher rates of any past year substance use disorder and past year suicidal ideation.

Continue reading

Knee Pain Relief by Emoblization of Joint Synovial Tissue

PainRelief.com Interview with:

Ari J. Isaacson MD
Director of Clinical Research
Clinical Associate Professor, Vascular Interventional Radiology
University of North Carolina

PainRelief.com:  What is the background for this study?

Response: The current treatments for pain due to osteoarthritis of the knee that does not respond to medication or physical therapy  include knee injections and knee replacement. However, some people are too young or unable to undergo knee replacement. Knee injections are often ineffective and need to repeated every few months. There is a need for a treatment option that can reliably relieve knee pain for a year or longer in patients who are not ready or able to undergo knee replacement.

What Drugs Are Prescribed for Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain Relief?

PainRelief.com Interview with:
Debbie Feldman
,, Ph.D.
Professeure titulaire/Full Professor
Faculté de médecine/Faculty of Medicine
École de réadaptation/School of Rehabilitation
Université de Montréal

Debbie Feldman,, Ph.D.
 Professeure titulaire/Full Professor
 Faculté de médecine/Faculty of Medicine
 École de réadaptation/School of Rehabilitation
 Université de Montréal
Dr. Feldman

PainRelief.com:  What is the background for this study?  What are the main findings?

Response: The goal was to explore clinical management of new cases of musculoskeletal conditions associated with chronic pain, at the population level. Few studies to date have addressed treatment at the population level and none explored initial management specifically. Furthermore, not much is known regarding patient and provider characteristics that are potentially associated with different treatment options (except for some information regarding prescription of opioids). Main findings are in the answer below.

Continue reading

Adults 50+ More Likely to Misuse Opioids for Pain Relief

PainRelief.com Interview with:
Ty S. Schepis, Ph.D.

Associate Professor
Department of Psychology
Texas State University

 Ty S. Schepis, Ph.D.
 Associate Professor
 Department of Psychology
 Texas State University

PainRelief.com:  What is the background for this study?  What are the main findings?

Response: We were interested in examining the underlying reasons for prescription opioid misuse both across the population and in older adults specifically. Given that pain conditions and physical health limitations increase with aging, we wondered if different age groups would display different patterns of motives. Indeed, they did. Adults 50 and older were particularly likely to misuse opioid medication only for pain relief reasons (over 80%); in contrast, roughly 65% of young adults (18-25 years) endorsed only non-pain relief motives for misuse.

For older adults, opioid misuse involving any non-pain relief motives was associated with a greater rate of also having another substance use disorder and past-year suicidal thoughts.

Acute Low Back Pain: Does Ibuprofen With or Without Acetaminophen offer Pain Relief?

PainRelief.com Interview with:
Benjamin W. Friedman, MD, MS
Department of Emergency Medicine
Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Bronx, NY, 10467

Benjamin W. Friedman, MD, MS
 Department of Emergency Medicine
 Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine
 Bronx, NY, 10467

PainRelief.com:  What is the background for this study?  What are the main findings?

Response: Low back pain is a highly prevalent problem that causes more than 2 million visits to American emergency departments annually. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are first line medical management of this ailment, but are only modestly effective. We conducted an RCT to determine if adding acetaminophen to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs could improve outcomes two days and seven days after an ED visit for low back pain. Unfortunately, acetaminophen did not improve this outcomes.

Continue reading