PainRelief.com Interview with: Michael J. DiStefano, PhD Department of Clinical Pharmacy Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora
PainRelief.com: What is the background for this study? What is ketamine primarily used for?
Response: Ketamine has been an FDA-approved anesthetic since 1970. However, it is increasingly used off-label to treat a variety of mental health and pain conditions. Some providers also offer oral formulations of ketamine, which do not have FDA approval for any indication. Esketamine, an enantiomer of ketamine, is a nasal spray that recently received FDA approval and is narrowly indicated for people with treatment-resistant depression. Esketamine has an extensive FDA REMS (Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies) protocol in place to promote safe use. There is no analogous safety protocol in place for the off-label or unapproved use of ketamine.
Given increasing interest in using ketamine to treat a variety of conditions, we were interested to see how the drug is being promoted to potential patients. The FDA typically regulates consumer advertising for prescription drugs, but only for manufacturers, packers, and distributors of these drugs, designations which don’t seem to include these clinics. The FDA requires that consumer drugs ads are accurate and provide balanced information on both benefits and risks.
PainRelief.com Interview with: Anna Warrener Ph.D. Department of Anthropology University of Colorado Denver Denver, CO
PainRelief.com: What is the background for this study?
Response: We became interested in looking at trunk position during running because one of us (Daniel Lieberman) had anecdotally observed people running with a variety of trunk positions, and when we went looking for academic literature on the topic, we found it was fairly scarce. We suspected that trunk position could have a major impact on the forces experienced by the lower limbs during running and even affect aspects of gait (stride length and time). So we developed a model predicting how these forces and movements might change as trunk flexion/forward leaning increased.
Our primary predictions were that more forward lean would increase “overstride” which is the distance in side view between the hip and the heel as it contacts the ground (a measure of how far your are extending your leg when you step). This in turn would increase the impact forces experienced by the lower limb at initial contact which have previously been shown to increase the risk of repetitive stress injuries. We also predicted that stride would get longer and take more time because extending the leading leg out farther forward (overstriding) would be necessary to keep the body center of mass within a base of support above the limbs. This more extended limb, we predicted, would change the angles and forces about the ankle, knee and hip joints.
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